Volume 3 Issue 1
March  2024
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Martine Jacob, Kerstin Wissel, Oliver Clemens. Recycling of solid-state batteries—challenge and opportunity for a circular economy?[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 012101. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/acfb28
Citation: Martine Jacob, Kerstin Wissel, Oliver Clemens. Recycling of solid-state batteries—challenge and opportunity for a circular economy?[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 012101. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/acfb28
Topical Review •
OPEN ACCESS

Recycling of solid-state batteries—challenge and opportunity for a circular economy?

© 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory
Materials Futures, Volume 3, Number 1
  • Received Date: 2023-07-28
  • Accepted Date: 2023-09-18
  • Publish Date: 2024-01-03
  • The tremendous efforts made in the research field of solid-state Li-ion batteries have led to considerable advancement of this technology and the first market-ready systems can be expected in the near future. The research community is currently investigating different solid-state electrolyte classes (e.g. oxides, sulfides, halides and polymers) with a focus on further optimizing the synthesis and electrochemical performance. However, so far, the development of sustainable recycling strategies allowing for an efficient backflow of critical elements contained in these batteries into the economic cycle and thus a transition from a linear to a circular economy lags behind. In this contribution, resource aspects with respect to the chemical value of crucial materials, which are used for the synthesis of solid-state electrolytes are being discussed. Furthermore, an overview of possible approaches in relation to their challenges and opportunities for the recycling of solid-state batteries with respect to different solid-state electrolyte classes by means of pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and direct recycling/dissolution-based separation processes is given. Based on these considerations and with reference to previous research, it will be shown that different solid-state electrolytes will require individually adapted recycling processes to be suitably designed for a circular economy and that further improvements and investigations will be required.

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