Volume 1 Issue 4
December  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Ankur Sharma, Md Mehedi Hasan, Yuerui Lu. Exciton dynamics in 2D organic semiconductors[J]. Materials Futures, 2022, 1(4): 042001. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ac9199
Citation: Ankur Sharma, Md Mehedi Hasan, Yuerui Lu. Exciton dynamics in 2D organic semiconductors[J]. Materials Futures, 2022, 1(4): 042001. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ac9199
Topical Review •
OPEN ACCESS

Exciton dynamics in 2D organic semiconductors

© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory
Materials Futures, Volume 1, Number 4
  • Received Date: 2022-08-16
  • Accepted Date: 2022-09-13
  • Publish Date: 2022-09-28
  • Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials have been studied extensively for their interesting excitonic and optoelectronic properties arising from strong many-body interactions and quantum confinement at 2D limit. Most of these materials have been inorganic, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, phosphorene, etc. Organic semiconductor materials, on the other hand been investigated for their excellent electrical conductivity and low dielectric coefficients for similar applications in the thin film or bulk material phase. The lack of crystallinity in the thin film and bulk phases has led to ambiguity over the excitonic and electronic/optical band gap characteristics. The recent emergence of 2D organic materials has opened a new domain of high crystallinity and controlled morphology, allowing for the study of low-lying excitonic states and optoelectronic properties. They have been demonstrated to have different excitonic properties compared with the Wannier–Mott excitons in inorganic 2D materials. Here we present our recent experimental observations and analysis of 2D organic semiconductor materials. We discuss the role of high-crystalline and morphology-controlled growth of single-crystalline materials and their optoelectronic properties. The report explains the Frenkel (FR) and charge-transfer (CT) excitons and subsequent light emission and absorption properties in organic materials. The true nature of low-lying excitonic states, which arises from the interaction between CT and FR excitons, is experimentally studied and discussed to reveal the electronic band structure. We then discuss the pure FR behaviour we observed in J–type aggregated organic materials leading to coherent superradiant excitonic emissions. The supertransport of excitons within the organic materials, facilitated by their pure FR nature, and the delocalization of excitons over a large number of molecules are also demonstrated. Finally, we discuss the applications and our vision for these organic 2D materials in fast organic light-emitting diodes, high-speed excitonic circuits, quantum computing devices, and other optoelectronic devices.

  • loading
  • [1]
    Zhang L et al 2021 2D organic single crystals: synthesis, novel physics, high-performance optoelectronic devices and integration Mater. Today 50 442–75
    [2]
    Zhu Y, Sun X, Tang Y, Fu L and Lu Y 2020 Two-dimensional materials for light emitting applications: achievement, challenge and future perspectives Nano Res. 14 1912–36
    [3]
    Zhu Y, Li Z, Zhang L, Wang B, Luo Z, Long J, Yang J, Fu L and Lu Y 2018 High-efficiency monolayer molybdenum ditelluride light-emitting diode and photodetector ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10 43291–8
    [4]
    Zhang L et al 2018 Efficient and layer-dependent exciton pumping across atomically thin organic-inorganic type-I heterostructures Adv. Mater. 30 e1803986
    [5]
    Yildirim T, Zhang L, Neupane G P, Chen S, Zhang J, Yan H, Hasan M M, Yoshikawa G and Lu Y 2020 Towards future physics and applications via two-dimensional material NEMS resonators Nanoscale 12 22366–85
    [6]
    Zhang L et al 2020 2D materials and heterostructures at extreme pressure Adv. Sci. 7 2002697
    [7]
    Pei J, Yang J, Yildirim T, Zhang H and Lu Y 2019 Many-body complexes in 2D semiconductors Adv. Mater. 31 e1706945
    [8]
    Mak K F, He K, Lee C, Lee G H, Hone J, Heinz T F and Shan J 2013 Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2 Nat. Mater. 12 207–11
    [9]
    Yang J, Xu R, Pei J, Myint Y W, Wang F, Wang Z, Zhang S, Yu Z and Lu Y 2015 Optical tuning of exciton and trion emissions in monolayer phosphorene Light Sci. Appl. 4 e312
    [10]
    Xu R et al 2016 Exciton brightening in monolayer phosphorene via dimensionality modification Adv. Mater. 28 3493–8
    [11]
    Shang J, Shen X, Cong C, Peimyoo N, Cao B, Eginligil M and Yu T 2015 Observation of excitonic fine structure in a 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor ACS Nano 9 647–55
    [12]
    Ugeda M M et al 2014 Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor Nat. Mater. 13 1091–5
    [13]
    Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T and Ferrari A C 2010 Graphene photonics and optoelectronics Nat. Photon. 4 611–22
    [14]
    Constantinescu G, Kuc A and Heine T 2013 Stacking in bulk and bilayer hexagonal boron nitride Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 036104
    [15]
    Vogl T, Doherty M W, Buchler B C, Lu Y and Lam P K 2019 Atomic localization of quantum emitters in multilayer hexagonal boron nitride Nanoscale 11 14362–71
    [16]
    Lopez-Sanchez O et al 2013 Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2 Nat. Nano 8 497–501
    [17]
    Zeng H, Dai J, Yao W, Xiao D and Cui X 2012 Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping Nat. Nano 7 490–3
    [18]
    Zhu Y, Wang B, Li Z, Zhang J, Tang Y, Torres J F, Lipin´ski W, Fu L and Lu Y 2021 A high-efficiency wavelength-tunable monolayer LED with hybrid continuous-pulsed injection Adv. Mater. 33 e2101375
    [19]
    Pei J et al 2017 Excited state biexcitons in atomically thin MoSe2 ACS Nano 11 7468–75
    [20]
    Sharma A, Zhu Y, Halbich R, Sun X, Zhang L, Wang B and Lu Y 2022 Engineering the dynamics and transport of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in monolayer WS2 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 14 41165–77
    [21]
    Zhang S et al 2014 Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene ACS Nano 8 9590–6
    [22]
    Sirringhaus H, Tessler N and Friend R H 1998 Integrated optoelectronic devices based on conjugated polymers Science 280 1741–4
    [23]
    Rogers J A 2001 Toward paperlike displays Science 291 1502–3
    [24]
    Bardeen C J 2013 Excitonic processes in molecular crystalline materials MRS Bull. 38 65–71
    [25]
    Ahn T-S, Müller A M, Al-Kaysi R O, Spano F C, Norton J E, Beljonne D, Brédas J-L and Bardeen C J 2008 Experimental and theoretical study of temperature dependent exciton delocalization and relaxation in anthracene thin films J. Chem. Phys. 128 054505
    [26]
    de Boer R W I, Gershenson M E, Morpurgo A F and Podzorov V 2004 Organic single-crystal field-effect transistors Phys. Status Solidi a 201 1302–31
    [27]
    de Boer R W I, Jochemsen M, Klapwijk T M, Morpurgo A F, Niemax J, Tripathi A K and Pflaum J 2004 Space charge limited transport and time of flight measurements in tetracene single crystals: a comparative study J. Appl. Phys. 95 1196–202
    [28]
    Congreve D N, Lee J, Thompson N J, Hontz E, Yost S R, Reusswig P D, Bahlke M E, Reineke S, Van Voorhis T and Baldo M A 2013 External quantum efficiency above 100% in a singlet-exciton-fission–based organic photovoltaic cell Science 340 334–7
    [29]
    Rao A, Wilson M W B, Hodgkiss J M, Albert-Seifried S, Bässler H and Friend R H 2010 Exciton fission and charge generation via triplet excitons in pentacene/C60 bilayers J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 12698–703
    [30]
    Sirringhaus H 2005 Device physics of solution-processed organic field-effect transistors Adv. Mater. 17 2411–25
    [31]
    Jiang H and Hu W 2020 The emergence of organic single-crystal electronics Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 59 1408–28
    [32]
    He D et al 2014 Two-dimensional quasi-freestanding molecular crystals for high-performance organic field-effect transistors Nat. Commun. 5 5162
    [33]
    Sharma A et al 2020 Supertransport of excitons in atomically thin organic semiconductors at the 2D quantum limit Light Sci. Appl. 9 116
    [34]
    Köhler A and Bässler H 2015 Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors: An Introduction (New York: Wiley)
    [35]
    Podzorov V 2013 Organic single crystals: addressing the fundamentals of organic electronics MRS Bull. 38 15–24
    [36]
    Lee K et al 2010 Interfacial trap density-of-states in pentacene-and ZnO-based thin-film transistors measured via novel photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy Adv. Mater. 22 3260–5
    [37]
    Chua L-L, Zaumseil J, Chang J-F, Ou E C-W, Ho P K-H, Sirringhaus H and Friend R H 2005 General observation of n-type field-effect behaviour in organic semiconductors Nature 434 194
    [38]
    Podzorov V, Menard E, Borissov A, Kiryukhin V, Rogers J A and Gershenson M E 2004 Intrinsic charge transport on the surface of organic semiconductors Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 086602
    [39]
    Zhang Y et al 2016 Probing carrier transport and structure-property relationship of highly ordered organic semiconductors at the two-dimensional limit Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 016602
    [40]
    Lim S-H, Bjorklund T G, Spano F C and Bardeen C J 2004 Exciton delocalization and superradiance in tetracene thin films and nanoaggregates Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 107402
    [41]
    Kasha M 1963 Energy transfer mechanisms and the molecular exciton model for molecular aggregates Radiat. Res. 20 55–70
    [42]
    Davydov A 1971 Theory of Molecular Excitations vol 7 (New York: Plenum Press) pp 387–94
    [43]
    Hestand N J, Yamagata H, Xu B, Sun D, Zhong Y, Harutyunyan A R, Chen G, Dai H-L, Rao Y and Spano F C 2015 Polarized absorption in crystalline pentacene: theory vs experiment J. Phys. Chem. C 119 22137–47
    [44]
    Spano F C and Silva C 2014 H-and J-aggregate behavior in polymeric semiconductors Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 65 477–500
    [45]
    Yamagata H, Maxwell D S, Fan J, Kittilstved K R, Briseno A L, Barnes M D and Spano F C 2014 HJ-aggregate behavior of crystalline 7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene: introducing a new design paradigm for organic materials J. Phys. Chem. C 118 28842–54
    [46]
    Zhu X Y, Yang Q and Muntwiler M 2009 Charge-transfer excitons at organic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces Acc. Chem. Res. 42 1779–87
    [47]
    Yamagata H, Norton J, Hontz E, Olivier Y, Beljonne D, Brédas J L, Silbey R J and Spano F C 2011 The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals J. Chem. Phys. 134 204703
    [48]
    Qi D, Su H, Bastjan M, Jurchescu O D, Palstra T M, Wee A T S, Rübhausen M and Rusydi A 2013 Observation of Frenkel and charge transfer excitons in pentacene single crystals using spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 113303
    [49]
    Hoffmann M, Schmidt K, Fritz T, Hasche T, Agranovich V M and Leo K 2000 The lowest energy Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons in quasi-one-dimensional structures: application to MePTCDI and PTCDA crystals Chem. Phys. 258 73–96
    [50]
    Zhao H et al 2019 Strong optical response and light emission from a monolayer molecular crystal Nat. Commun. 10 5589
    [51]
    Spano F C and Yamagata H 2011 Vibronic coupling in J-aggregates and beyond: a direct means of determining the exciton coherence length from the photoluminescence spectrum J. Phys. Chem. B 115 5133–43
    [52]
    Cong K, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Noe G T, Belyanin A and Kono J 2016 Dicke superradiance in solids J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33 C80–101
    [53]
    Sharma A, Khan A, Zhu Y, Halbich R, Ma W, Tang Y, Wang B and Lu Y 2019 Quasi-line spectral emissions from highly crystalline one-dimensional organic nanowires Nano Lett. 19 7877–86
    [54]
    Grosso G, Graves J, Hammack A T, High A A, Butov L V, Hanson M and Gossard A C 2009 Excitonic switches operating at around 100 K Nat. Photon. 3 577–80
    [55]
    High A A, Hammack A T, Butov L V, Hanson M and Gossard A C 2007 Exciton optoelectronic transistor Opt. Lett. 32 2466–8
    [56]
    High A A, Novitskaya E E, Butov L V, Hanson M and Gossard A C 2008 Control of exciton fluxes in an excitonic integrated circuit Science 321 229–31
    [57]
    Wakita K 2013 Semiconductor Optical Modulators (New York: Springer)
    [58]
    Sharma A, Yan H, Zhang L, Sun X, Liu B and Lu Y 2018 Highly enhanced many-body interactions in anisotropic 2D semiconductors Acc. Chem. Res. 51 1164–73
  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figures(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(235) PDF downloads(33)
    Article Statistics
    Related articles from

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return