Volume 1 Issue 2
June  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Hongmei Tang, Zhe Qu, Yaping Yan, Wenlan Zhang, Hua Zhang, Minshen Zhu, Oliver G Schmidt. Unleashing energy storage ability of aqueous battery electrolytes[J]. Materials Futures, 2022, 1(2): 022001. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ac52e8
Citation: Hongmei Tang, Zhe Qu, Yaping Yan, Wenlan Zhang, Hua Zhang, Minshen Zhu, Oliver G Schmidt. Unleashing energy storage ability of aqueous battery electrolytes[J]. Materials Futures, 2022, 1(2): 022001. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ac52e8
Topical Review •

Unleashing energy storage ability of aqueous battery electrolytes

© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory
Materials Futures, Volume 1, Number 2
  • Received Date: 2022-01-03
  • Accepted Date: 2022-02-08
  • Publish Date: 2022-04-14
  • Electrolytes make up a large portion of the volume of energy storage devices, but they often do not contribute to energy storage. The ability of using electrolytes to store charge would promise a significant increase in energy density to meet the needs of evolving electronic devices. Redox-flow batteries use electrolytes to store energy and show high energy densities, but the same design cannot be applied to portable or microdevices that require static electrolytes. Therefore, implementing electrolyte energy storage in a non-flow design becomes critical. This review summarizes the requirements for a stable and efficient electrolyte and diverse redox-active species dissolved in aqueous solutions. More importantly, we review the pioneering works using static electrolyte energy storage in the hope that it will pave a new way to design compact and energy-dense batteries.

  • loading
  • [1]
    Gür T M 2018 Review of electrical energy storage technologies, materials and systems: challenges and prospects for large-scale grid storage Energy Environ. Sci. 11 2696–767
    Park M, Ryu J, Wang W and Cho J 2017 Material design and engineering of next-generation flow-battery technologies Nat. Rev. Mater. 2 16080
    Faisal M et al 2018 Review of energy storage system technologies in microgrid applications: issues and challenges IEEE Access 6 35143–64
    Pal B, Yang S, Ramesh S, Thangadurai V and Jose R 2019 Electrolyte selection for supercapacitive devices: a critical review Nanoscale Adv. 1 3807–35
    Lee J et al 2019 Redox-electrolytes for non-flow electrochemical energy storage: a critical review and best practice Prog. Mater. Sci. 101 46–89
    Borenstein A et al 2017 Carbon-based composite materials for supercapacitor electrodes: a review J. Mater. Chem. A 5 12653–72
    Simon P and Gogotsi Y 2020 Perspectives for electrochemical capacitors and related devices Nat. Mater. 19 1151–63
    Choi C et al 2020 Achieving high energy density and high power density with pseudocapacitive materials Nat. Rev. Mater. 5 5–19
    Kumar K S, Choudhary N, Jung Y and Thomas J 2018 Recent advances in two-dimensional nanomaterials for supercapacitor electrode applications ACS Energy Lett. 3 482–95
    Leung P et al 2012 Progress in redox flow batteries, remaining challenges and their applications in energy storage RSC Adv. 2 10125–56
    Zhang J et al 2018 An all-aqueous redox flow battery with unprecedented energy density Energy Environ. Sci. 11 2010–5
    Liu Z et al 2020 Voltage issue of aqueous rechargeable metal-ion batteries Chem. Soc. Rev. 49 180–232
    Chao D and Qiao S Z 2020 Toward high-voltage aqueous batteries: super- or low-concentrated electrolyte? Joule 4 1846–51
    Yang Z et al 2011 Electrochemical energy storage for green grid Chem. Rev. 111 3577–613
    Ulaganathan M et al 2016 Recent advancements in all-vanadium redox flow batteries Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3 1500309
    Wu M C, Zhao T S, Wei L, Jiang H R and Zhang R H 2018 Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries J. Power Sources 384 232–9
    Kolthoff I M and Tomsicek W J 1935 The oxidation potential of the system potassium ferrocyanide-potassium ferricyanide at various ionic strengths J. Phys. Chem. 4 945–54
    Quan M, Sanchez D, Wasylkiw M F and Smith D K 2007 Voltammetry of quinones in unbuffered aqueous solution: reassessing the roles of proton transfer and hydrogen bonding in the aqueous electrochemistry of quinones J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 12847–56
    Delahay P, Pourbaix M and Van Rysselberghe P 1951 Potential-pH diagram of zinc and its applications to the study of zinc corrosion J. Electrochem. Soc. 98 101
    Beh E S et al 2017 A neutral pH aqueous organic–organometallic redox flow battery with extremely high capacity retention ACS Energy Lett. 2 639–44
    Bard A J and Faulkner L R 2000 Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications (New York: Wiley)
    Zhou X, Lin L, Lv Y, Zhang X and Wu Q 2018 A Sn-Fe flow battery with excellent rate and cycle performance J. Power Sources 404 89–95
    Gong K et al 2016 All-soluble all-iron aqueous redox-flow battery ACS Energy Lett. 1 89–93
    Xie C, Duan Y, Xu W, Zhang H and Li X 2017 A low-cost neutral zinc–iron flow battery with high energy density for stationary energy storage Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 56 14953–7
    Nicholson R S 1965 Theory and application of cyclic voltammetry for measurement of electrode reaction kinetics Anal. Chem. 37 1351–5
    Hofmann J D and Schröder D 2019 Which parameter is governing for aqueous redox flow batteries with organic active material? Chem. Ing. Tech. 91 786–94
    Michibata H 2012 Vanadium: Biochemical and Molecular Biological Approaches. Vanadium: Biochemical and Molecular Biological Approaches (Dordrecht: Springer) pp 228
    Vijayakumar M, Wang W, Nie Z, Sprenkle V and Hu J 2013 Elucidating the higher stability of vanadium(V) cations in mixed acid based redox flow battery electrolytes J. Power Sources 241 173–7
    Li L et al 2011 A stable vanadium redox-flow battery with high energy density for large-scale energy storage Adv. Energy Mater. 1 394–400
    Agarwal H, Florian J, Goldsmith B R and Singh N 2019 V 2+/V3+ redox kinetics on glassy carbon in acidic electrolytes for vanadium redox flow batteries ACS Energy Lett. 4 2368–77
    Su´arez D J et al 2014 Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery ChemSusChem 7 914–8
    Jiang H R et al 2020 A high power density and long cycle life vanadium redox flow battery Energy Storage Mater. 24 529–40
    Tseng T-M, Huang R-H, Huang C-Y, Hsueh K-L, Shieu F-S and Kinetic A 2013 Study of the platinum/carbon anode catalyst for vanadium redox flow battery J. Electrochem. Soc. 160 A690–6
    Tsai H M, Yang S J, Ma C C M and Xie X 2012 Preparation and electrochemical activities of iridium-decorated graphene as the electrode for all-vanadium redox flow batteries Electrochim. Acta 77 232–6
    Kim K J et al 2012 Novel catalytic effects of Mn3O4 for all vanadium redox flow batteries Chem. Commun. 48 5455–7
    Ejigu A, Edwards M and Walsh D A 2015 Synergistic catalyst-support interactions in a graphene-Mn3O4 electrocatalyst for vanadium redox flow batteries ACS Catal. 5 7122–30
    Thu Pham H T, Jo C, Lee J and Kwon Y 2016 MoO2 nanocrystals interconnected on mesocellular carbon foam as a powerful catalyst for vanadium redox flow battery RSC Adv. 6 17574–82
    Zhou H et al 2014 CeO2 decorated graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries RSC Adv. 4 61912–8
    Shen Y et al 2014 Electrochemical catalytic activity of tungsten trioxide-modified graphite felt toward VO2 +/VO2+ redox reaction Electrochim. Acta 132 37–41
    Shah A B, Wu Y and Joo Y L 2019 Direct addition of sulfur and nitrogen functional groups to graphite felt electrodes for improving all-vanadium redox flow battery performance Electrochim. Acta 297 905–15
    Li Y, Parrondo J, Sankarasubramanian S and Ramani V 2019 Impact of surface carbonyl- and hydroxyl-group concentrations on electrode kinetics in an all-vanadium redox flow battery J. Phys. Chem. C 123 6370–8
    Roe S, Menictas C and Skyllas-Kazacos M 2016 A high energy density vanadium redox flow battery with 3 M vanadium electrolyte J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 A5023–8
    Kausar N, Mousa A and Skyllas-Kazacos M 2016 The effect of additives on the high-temperature stability of the vanadium redox flow battery positive electrolytes ChemElectroChem 3 276–82
    Mousa A and Skyllas-Kazacos M 2015 Effect of additives on the low-temperature stability of vanadium redox flow battery negative half-cell electrolyte ChemElectroChem 2 1742–51
    Zhang J et al 2011 Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries J. Appl. Electrochem. 41 1215–21
    Peng S et al 2012 Influence of trishydroxymethyl aminomethane as a positive electrolyte additive on performance of vanadium redox flow battery Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7 2440-47
    Peng S et al 2012 Stability of positive electrolyte containing trishydroxymethyl aminomethane additive for vanadium redox flow battery Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7 4388–96
    Li Q, Bai A, Xue Z, Zheng Y and Sun H 2020 Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene composite electrode with high electrocatalytic activity for vanadium redox flow battery application Electrochim. Acta 362 137223
    Bhushan M, Kumar S, Singh A K and Shahi V K 2019 High-performance membrane for vanadium redox flow batteries: cross-linked poly(ether ether ketone) grafted with sulfonic acid groups via the spacer J. Membr. Sci. 583 1–8
    Si J, Lv Y, Lu S and Xiang Y 2019 Microscopic phase-segregated quaternary ammonia polysulfone membrane for vanadium redox flow batteries J. Power Sources 428 88–92
    Yin C, Gao Y, Xie G, Li T and Tang H 2019 Three dimensional multi-physical modeling study of interdigitated flow field in porous electrode for vanadium redox flow battery J. Power Sources 438 227023
    Tsushima S and Suzuki T 2020 Modeling and simulation of vanadium redox flow battery with interdigitated flow field for optimizing electrode architecture J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 020553
    Zeng Y K, Zhao T S, Zhou X L, Wei L and Ren Y X 2017 A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage J. Power Sources 346 97–102
    Manohar A K et al 2016 A high efficiency iron-chloride redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 A5118–25
    Jayathilake B S, Plichta E J, Hendrickson M A and Narayanan S R 2018 Improvements to the coulombic efficiency of the iron electrode for an all-iron redox-flow battery J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 A1630–8
    Hawthorne K L, Petek T J, Miller M A, Wainright J S and Savinell R F 2015 An investigation into factors affecting the iron plating reaction for an all-iron flow battery J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 A108–13
    Holze R and Lechner M D 2007 Electrochemistry : Electrochemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics (Berlin: Springer)
    Beverskog B 1996 Revised diagrams for iron at 25–300 ◦C Corros. Sci. 38 2121–35
    Luo J et al 2017 Unraveling pH dependent cycling stability of ferricyanide/ferrocyanide in redox flow batteries Nano Energy 42 215–21
    Luo J et al 2019 Unprecedented capacity and stability of ammonium ferrocyanide catholyte in pH neutral aqueous redox flow batteries Joule 3 149–63
    Yee E L, Cave R J, Guyer K L, Tyma P D and Weaver M J 1979 A survey of ligand effects upon the reaction entropies of some transition metal redox couples J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101 1131–7
    Chen Y D, Santhanam K S V and Bard A J 1981 Solution redox couples for electrochemical energy storage: I. Iron (III)-iron (II) complexes with O-phenanthroline and related ligands J. Electrochem. Soc. 128 1460–7
    Weber A Z et al 2011 Redox flow batteries: a review J. Appl. Electrochem. 41 1137–64
    Waters S E, Robb B H, Marshak M P and Marshak M P 2020 Effect of chelation on iron-chromium redox flow batteries ACS Energy Lett. 5 1758–62
    Lopez-Atalaya M, Codina G, Perez J R, Vazquez J L and Aldaz A 1992 Optimization studies on a Fe/Cr redox flow battery J. Power Sources 39 147–54
    Wang W et al 2013 Recent progress in redox flow battery research and development Adv. Funct. Mater. 23 970–86
    Gwynne E, Davies B H and Gwynne E 1952 The iodine-iodide interaction J. Am. Chem. Soc. I 2748–52
    McIndoe J S and Tuck D G 2003 Studies of polyhalide ions in aqueous and non-aqueous solution by electrospray mass spectrometry Dalton Trans. 2003 244–8
    Zhao Y, Wang L and Byon H R 2013 High-performance rechargeable lithium-iodine batteries using triiodide/iodide redox couples in an aqueous cathode Nat. Commun. 4 1–7
    Li B et al 2015 Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery Nat. Commun. 6 6303
    Li Z, Weng G, Zou Q, Cong G and Lu Y C 2016 A high-energy and low-cost polysulfide/iodide redox flow battery Nano Energy 30 283–92
    Weng G M, Li Z, Cong G, Zhou Y and Lu Y C 2017 Unlocking the capacity of iodide for high-energy-density zinc/polyiodide and lithium/polyiodide redox flow batteries Energy Environ. Sci. 10 735–41
    Mousavi M et al 2020 Decoupled low-cost ammonium-based electrolyte design for highly stable zinc–iodine redox flow batteries Energy Storage Mater. 32 465–76
    Jang W J, Cha J S, Kim H and Yang J H 2021 Effect of an iodine film on charge-transfer resistance during the electro-oxidation of iodide in redox flow batteries ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13 6385–93
    Yang J, Song Y, Liu Q and Tang A 2021 High-capacity zinc-iodine flow batteries enabled by a polymer-polyiodide complex cathode J. Mater. Chem. A 9 16093–8
    Xie C, Liu Y, Lu W, Zhang H and Li X 2019 Highly stable zinc-iodine single flow batteries with super high energy density for stationary energy storage Energy Environ. Sci. 12 1834–9
    Luo J et al 2019 A 1.51 v pH neutral redox flow battery towards scalable energy storage J. Mater. Chem. A 7 9130–6
    Zhang S et al 2019 Recent progress in polysulfide redox-flow batteries Batter. Supercaps 2 627–37
    Gross M M and Manthiram A 2019 Long-life polysulfide-polyhalide batteries with a mediator-ion solid electrolyte ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2 3445–51
    Liu J et al 2021 Sulfur-based aqueous batteries: electrochemistry and strategies J. Am. Chem. Soc. 143 15475–89
    Chen W et al 2018 A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage Nat. Energy 3 428–35
    Chao D et al 2019 An electrolytic Zn–MnO2 battery for high-voltage and scalable energy storage Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 58 7823–8
    Xie C et al 2020 A highly reversible neutral zinc/manganese battery for stationary energy storage Energy Environ. Sci. 13 135–43
    Gong K et al 2015 A zinc-iron redox-flow battery under $100 per kW h of system capital cost Energy Environ. Sci. 8 2941–5
    Yao Y, Wang Z, Li Z and Lu Y-C 2021 A dendrite–free tin anode for high-energy aqueous redox flow batteries Adv. Mater. 33 2008095
    Huskinson B et al 2014 A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery Nature 505 195–8
    Yang B, Hoober-Burkhardt L, Wang F, Surya Prakash G K and Narayanan S R 2014 An inexpensive aqueous flow battery for large-scale electrical energy storage based on water-soluble organic redox couples J. Electrochem. Soc. 161 A1371–80
    Er S, Suh C, Marshak M P and Aspuru-Guzik A 2015 Computational design of molecules for an all-quinone redox flow battery Chem. Sci. 6 885–93
    Wedege K, Draževi´c E, Konya D and Bentien A 2016 Organic redox species in aqueous flow batteries: redox potentials, chemical stability and solubility Sci. Rep. 6 1–13
    Yang B et al 2016 High-performance aqueous organic flow battery with quinone-based redox couples at both electrodes J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 A1442–9
    Zhou W et al 2020 Fundamental properties of TEMPO-based catholytes for aqueous redox flow batteries: effects of substituent groups and electrolytes on electrochemical properties, solubilities and battery performance RSC Adv. 10 21839–44
    Nutting J E, Rafiee M and Stahl S S 2018 Tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl (TEMPO), phthalimide N-oxyl (PINO), and related N-oxyl species: electrochemical properties and their use in electrocatalytic reactions Chem. Rev. 118 4834–85
    DeBruler C et al 2017 Designer two-electron storage viologen anolyte materials for neutral aqueous organic redox flow batteries Chemistry 3 961–78
    Jin S et al 2020 Near neutral pH redox flow battery with low permeability and long-lifetime phosphonated viologen active species Adv. Energy Mater. 10 2000100
    Liu W et al 2019 A highly stable neutral viologen/bromine aqueous flow battery with high energy and power density Chem. Commun. 55 4801–4
    Liu T, Wei X, Nie Z, Sprenkle V and Wang W 2016 A total organic aqueous redox flow battery employing a low cost and sustainable methyl viologen anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO catholyte Adv. Energy Mater. 6 1501449
    Janoschka T et al 2015 An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials Nature 527 78–81
    Tang H et al 2021 Battery-everywhere design based on a cathodeless configuration with high sustainability and energy density ACS Energy Lett. 6 1859–68
    Lei J, Yao Y, Wang Z and Lu Y C 2021 Towards high-areal-capacity aqueous zinc-manganese batteries: promoting MnO2 dissolution by redox mediators Energy Environ. Sci. 14 4418–26
    Zheng X et al 2021 Boosting electrolytic MnO2-Zn batteries by a bromine mediator Nano Lett. 21 8863–71
    Yadav G G, Turney D, Huang J, Wei X and Banerjee S 2019 Breaking the 2 V barrier in aqueous zinc chemistry: creating 2.45 and 2.8 V MnO2-Zn aqueous batteries ACS Energy Lett. 4 2144–6
    Liu C, Chi X, Han Q and Liu Y 2020 A high energy density aqueous battery achieved by dual dissolution/deposition reactions separated in acid-alkaline electrolyte Adv. Energy Mater. 10 1903589
    Zhong C et al 2020 Decoupling electrolytes towards stable and high-energy rechargeable aqueous zinc–manganese dioxide batteries Nat. Energy 5 440–9
    Chao D et al 2020 Atomic engineering catalyzed MnO2 electrolysis kinetics for a hybrid aqueous battery with high power and energy density Adv. Mater. 32 2001894
    Liang G et al 2019 A universal principle to design reversible aqueous batteries based on deposition–dissolution mechanism Adv. Energy Mater. 9 1901838
    Huang J et al 2019 Low-cost and high safe manganese-based aqueous battery for grid energy storage and conversion Sci. Bull. 64 1780–7
    Guo Z et al 2020 An organic/inorganic electrode-based hydronium-ion battery Nat. Commun. 11 959
    Yan L et al 2020 Solid-state proton battery operated at ultralow temperature ACS Energy Lett. 55 685–91
    Wu T H, Lin Y Q, Althouse Z D and Liu N 2021 Dissolution-redeposition mechanism of the MnO2 cathode in aqueous zinc-ion batteries ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 4 12267–74
  • 加载中



    Article Metrics

    Article Views(478) PDF downloads(82)
    Article Statistics
    Related articles from


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint